In other words, by the early 1990s, the number of missing women was “larger than the combined casualties of all famines in the twentieth century” (Sen 1990).  Such were the cases of Bourbon Spain until 1833 and the dominions of Austria-Hungary, as well as most realms within the former Holy Roman Empire, i.e. In 1994 over 180 states signed the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development, agreeing to "eliminate all forms of discrimination against the girl child". By proximity of blood, Edward was closest related as eldest son of the sister of Charles, Isabella. A small minority of monarchs in many countries have openly made their heir an illegitimate child; stories abound of others as newborns brought to the expectant queen consort such as to James II of England "in a bedpan". The Male-Child Preference Syndrome Some of the families I am going to refer to in this post are known personally by me so I will be discreet and mention no names. In the early years of the Republic, leaders believed that telling citizens to reduce their fertility was enough, repealing laws banning contraception and instead promoting its use. Adam Smith, in his book An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, explains the origin of primogeniture in Europe in the following way: [W]hen land was considered as the means, not of subsistence merely, but of power and protection, it was thought better that it should descend undivided to one. In every tribe in africa male children are very important in the family. pressed a preference for a male child. Some states are offering higher pension benefits to parents who raise one or two girls. Eldest daughters could find themselves under a situation of duress on remarriage, and the concept of the trophy bride if the husband were slain is one resonant in many cultures especially before the 20th century. Gallup, 23 June 2011. Although there is significant evidence of the prevalence of sex-selective abortions in many nations (especially India and China), there is also evidence to suggest that some of the variation in global sex ratios is due to disparate access to resources. This figure, when combined with statistics from around the world, led to a finding of over 100 million missing women. The sons may inherit a relatively small portion, or in most cases, they do not inherit any immovable property at all. "Half Fertility Clinics Allow Parents to Pick Gender." In such cultures, female heads of state were rare. The modern practice of sex-selective abortion is therefore a continuation of other historical practices.  However the data from CIA in 2017 cites the birth ratio for Montenegro within the normal range, at 106. In: Bennett NG, editor. Research shows that authoritarian regimes that rely on primogeniture for succession were more stable than forms of authoritarian rule with alternative succession arrangements. The ads focused on the religious and moral shame associated with abortion. The gender roles prescribed in the Three Obediences and Four Virtues became a cornerstone of the family, and thus, societal stability. , The exact prevalence of sex-selective abortion is uncertain, with the practice taking place in some societies as an open secret, without formal data on its frequency.  In South Korea and Taiwan, high male sex ratios and declining birth rates over several decades have led to cross-cultural marriage between local men and foreign women from countries such as mainland China, Vietnam and the Philippines. , The practice of prenatal sex selection has been condemned internationally. Jesudason, Sujatha, and Anat Shenker-Osorio. There are indications that this preference is decreasing however, as women were allowed to work in jobs deemed “only suitable for men” and earned the right to vote, making them appear less weaker.  As of 2015, South Korea's sex ratio at birth was 1.07 male/female. , The government of India, in a 2011 report, has begun better educating all stakeholders about its MTP and PCPNDT laws. Beijing: China Population Press, pp. Research by Junhong (2001) found that many parents are willing to pay to ensure that their child is male (especially if their first child is female), but will not do the same to ensure their child is female.  In contrast to decadal nationwide census data, small non-random sample surveys report higher child sex ratios in India.  However, Klasen's 2001 study revealed that this practice is less common in the poorest families, but rises dramatically in the slightly less poor families.  There is controversy whether sex ratios outside the 103-107 range are due to sex-selection, as suggested by some scholars, or due to natural causes. Gender identity can correlate with a person's assigned sex at birth or can differ from it. Henneberger, S. "China's One-Child Policy." But why do men keep silent about their sexual desires and preferences?  Angola, Botswana and Namibia have reported birth sex ratios between 94 and 99, which is quite different than the presumed "normal" sex ratio, meaning that significantly more girls have been born in such societies.  For example, Alderman and Gerter (1997) found that unequal access to healthcare is a primary cause of female death in developing nations, especially in Southeast Asia. : History. However, it climbed to 111.9 by 1990 and to 118 by 2010 per its official census. The word pedophilia comes from the Greek παῖς, παιδός (paîs, paidós), meaning "child", and φιλία (), "friendly love" or "friendship". N.p., 31 May 2012. Henry VIII of England did not wait until death and remarried twice on the basis of lack of producing a male heir, on the second occasion beheading his queen "for witchcraft". Social norms pointing to kings further flow from making clear, first-generation survivors, so to avoid civil war. , Arnold, Kishor, and Roy, in their 2002 paper, too hypothesize that modern fetal sex screening techniques have skewed child sex ratios in India. Tools. Urban India has higher child sex ratio than rural India according to 1991, 2001 and 2011 Census data, implying higher prevalence of sex selective abortion in urban India. Women, on the other hand, showed no preference for either sex, with 33% stating that they preferred a girl and 31% responding that they favored a boy. For example, a grandfather without sons was succeeded by his grandson, the son of his daughter, although the daughter still lived. 200. Many others if the title is otherwise to be extinct pass to the closest elder sister or a line of descendants to the last holder, as abeyant holders, such being parents or ancestors to whichever direct male descendant is first born to 'settle the abeyance'. The story is not, however, all gloom. Pre-modern Chinese society was predominantly patriarchal and patrilineal from at least the 11th century BC onwards. Although the legal and social standing of women have greatly improved in the 20th century, son preference remains still strong, and the situation was aggravated by the one child policy.  Overall, the birth sex ratio in Armenia exceeded 115 in some years, far higher than India's which was cited at 108. Thus, some scholars argue that disparities in access to resources such as healthcare, education, and nutrition play at least a small role in the high sex ratios seen in some parts of the world. Then, in 1964, the Family Planning Office was established to enforce stricter guidelines regarding fertility and it was moderately successful. The one child policy was enforced throughout the years, including through forced abortions and forced sterilizations, but gradually loosened until it was formally abolished in 2015. Rowman and Allenheld. According to Sen (1990), differences in wages and job advancement also have a dramatic effect on sex ratios. An article by Al Jazeera titled "How Western family planners helped curb the birth of girls in developing countries, the effects of which are felt today" claimed that it was such population policies (which included forced sterilization), which were fully supported, even pushed by the West, that contributed to unbalanced sex ratios.  However, many people have personal connections to medical practitioners and strong son preference still dominates culture, leading to the widespread use of sex determination techniques. Michel Garenne reports that many African nations have, over decades, witnessed birth sex ratios below 100, that is more girls are born than boys. Male-preference primogeniture diagram Main article: Primogeniture In primogeniture (or more precisely male primogeniture), the monarch's eldest son and his descendants take precedence over his siblings and their descendants. Preference for a male child as the first child is still strong among the young adults (χ2=38.64; Fisher's exact P=0.001). "Holding up more than half the sky:Fertility control and women's empowerment in China,"paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, 23–25 March, Los Angeles. In its communication campaigns, it is clearing up public misconceptions by emphasizing that sex determination is illegal, but abortion is legal for certain medical conditions in India. The rule change also applies to all Commonwealth realms that have the British monarch as their head of state. During this era, Spain (in the Carlist conflicts) fought a civil war which pitted the Salic and female-line heirs of the ruling dynasty against one another for possession of the crown.  Such societies, in placing almost no value on females, encouraged parents to commit infanticide of girls or to abandon them. For example, in 1632 Christina, Queen of Sweden, succeeded to the throne after the death of her father, King Gustav II Adolf.  Although admission to the two highest ordines (orders), i. e. the senators and equestrians, potentially brought lifelong privileges that the next generation could inherit, the principle of inherited rank in general was little used. In the later dynasties, more emphasis was placed on the virtue of chastity. Culture rather than economic conditions is favored by some researchers because such deviations in sex ratios do not exist in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean. 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